What is CHS (Cylinder/Head/Sector)?

Many computer users don’t know the hard drive components and how hard drive works. Do you know how files are stored in your hard drive? How Windows know whether the files are? How to read files from and write into hard drives? Today, I’ll introduce these shortly. Firstly, let me introduce some technical terms. CHS Cylinder-head-sector, also known as CHS, is a method of giving addresses to data on a hard drive. Heads Every hard drive consists of platters and read-write heads. If a drive has four platters, it usually has eight read-write heads, one on the top and bottom of each platter. The head value is the number of read-write heads in the drive. Cylinders Each platter is divided into tracks. The cylinder value is the number of tracks on one side of each platter. There are the same number of cylinders on each side of each platter. The … Continue reading

What is Partition Boot Sector?

Each partition (also sometimes called a “logical DOS volume” in the DOS/Windows world) has its own volume boot sector. This is distinct from the master boot sector (or record) that controls the entire disk, but is similar in concept. It is also sometimes called the volume boot record or partition boot sector. Each volume boot sector contains the following: Disk Parameter Block: Also sometimes called the media parameter block, this is a data table that contains specific information about the volume, such as its specifications (size, number of sectors it contains, etc.), label name, and number of sectors per cluster used on the partition. Volume Boot Code: This is code that is specific to the operating system that is using this volume and is used to start the load of the operating system. This code is called by the master boot code that is stored in the master boot record, … Continue reading

Hard drive interface introduction and comparison

Some readers reflect that they don’t know the difference among hard drives, so this article introduces the hard drive interface, including IDE, SATA and SCSI. What is IDE/ATA Hard Drive? Integrated Device Electronics. It is the most widely-used hard drive interface on the market. The fancy name refers to how the IDE technology “integrates” the electronics controller into the drive itself. The IDE interface, which could only support drives up to 540 MB has been replaced by the superior EIDE (Enhanced-IDE) technology which supports over 50 GB and allows for over twice as fast data transfer rates. The other most common hard drive interface is SCSI, which is faster than EIDE, but usually costs more. Although it really refers to a general technology, most people use the term to refer the ATA specification, which uses this technology. What is ATA? AT Attachment. The specification, formulated in the 1980s by a … Continue reading

What is disk sector and bad sector, how to repair bad sector

What is disk sector? In the context of computer hardware, a sector is a sub-division of a track of a magnetic hard disk or optical disc. A sector stores a fixed amount of data. The typical formatting of sectors allows holding 512 bytes (e.g. harddisks and diskettes) or 2048 bytes (e.g. optical discs) of data. What is a bad sector? A sector is a small area on the surface of a hard drive or a floppy disk. Hard drives usually have several platters. The platters are the discs which are covered with magnetic material which is used to hold data. Floppy disk drives contain only one platter. Platters are divided into a set of concentric rings called tracks. A 1.44MB floppy disk has 160 tracks. Hard drives have thousands of tracks. Each of these tracks is divided into smaller storage areas called sectors. A sector is the smallest storage area … Continue reading

Basic Knowledge about Partition and Partitioning

What is a hard disk? A hard disk/drive is one the part of your computer responsible for long-term storage of information. Unlike volatile memory (often refers to RAM), which lost its storage information once its power supply is shut off, a hard disk stores information permanently, allowing you to save program, files or any other data. Hard disks also have much more powerful storage capabilities than RAM. What is disk formatting? Computer must be able to access needed information on command; however, even the smallest hard disk can store millions of bits. How does the computer know where to look for the information it needs? To solve this problem, hard disks are organized into discrete, identifiable divisions, thus allowing the computer to find any particular sequence of bits easily. The most basic form of disk organization called formatting. Formatting prepares the hard disk so that files can be written to … Continue reading